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Vocabulary sets related to transportation

Talking about transportation is a frequent occurrence in everyday life, and the IELTS Speaking test is no exception. The theme of transportation is likely to arise in any of the three parts of the Speaking test. You may be asked to discuss your experience with public transport and daily travel, talk about a specific type of transport (e.g. boats), describe a journey you’ve made, or speculate about transportation in the future. In addition, transportation is also a common theme for?Writing ?Task 2. Here you’re likely to be asked to analyze a specific problem related to transportation and, in some cases, identify possible solutions. So let’s take a look at five relevant sub-topics that we recommend you use to get your vocabulary sets started:

Means of transportation

word/phrase

part of speech

meaning

common collocations

example

pronunciation

tram

noun

an electric vehicle similar to a bus but goes along metal tracks on the road

catch/go on/take the tram, get on/off the tram, miss the tram, tram service/system, tram stop, (travel) by tram

In my opinion, the tram system is not as efficient as other means of public transport.

/tr?m?/

coach*

noun

a bus used to take groups of people on long journeys

?

private/air-conditioned/luxury coach, go/travel by coach, coach journey/trip/tour

I’d like to tour the country by coach.

/ko?t?/

yacht

noun

a boat used for travelling around for pleasure or racing

luxury/private yacht, cruise on/sail a yacht, yacht club/marina, on/on board a yacht

We spent our holiday on a private yacht in the Caribbean.

/?jɑt/

      • In the topic of transportation,?coach?can also be used to talk about the cheapest type of seats on a plane or train.

Roads & traffic

word/phrase

part of speech

meaning

common collocations

example

pronunciation

overpass

noun

a bridge that carries one road over another road

freeway/highway overpass

Traffic in the area significantly improved thanks to the new overpass.

/?o?·v?r?p?s?/

service road

noun

a small road next to a busier, faster road, that you use to drive to homes and shops

on a/the service road

In my city, truck traffic is not allowed on service roads.

/??s??.v?s ?ro?d/

traffic jam

noun

a large number of vehicles on a road moving very slowly or not at all

long/severe traffic jam, be/get caught/stuck in a traffic jam, traffic jam on the (road)

I was stuck in a traffic jam on my way here.

/??tr?f·?k ?d??m/

?

      1. Transportation & the environment

word/phrase

part of speech

meaning

common collocations

example

pronunciation

emissions

noun

the amount of gas, heat, light that is sent out

vehicle emissions, greenhouse gas/carbon dioxide emissions, cut/reduce/control emissions, emissions from (traffic)

In my opinion, governments are not doing enough to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from traffic.

/i?m??.?n/

noise pollution

noun

noise, such as that from traffic, that is considered unhealthy for people

to tackle/ease/reduce noise pollution, noise pollution from (type of transport)

Noise pollution from trains passing through residential areas is a major concern in my country.

/??n??z p??lu?.??n/

environmentally-friendly

adjective

not harmful to the environment

environmentally- friendly vehicles/ transportation/ fuel/ alternative

Electric cars are a more environmentally-friendly alternative.

/?n.va?r.?n?men.t??l.i ?frend.li/

?

Travel

word/phrase

part of speech

meaning

common collocations

example

pronunciation

abroad

adjective

in a foreign country

travel/go abroad, to be abroad, to move abroad

It’s much easier to travel abroad now than in the past.

/???br?d/

business trip

noun

a journey taken for business purposes

take/make a business trip, on a business trip

I went to New York on a business trip.

/?b?z·n?s?tr?p/

commute

verb

(or?noun)

to travel regularly between work and home

daily/every day commute, to commute from/to (place)

I commute to the city by bus every day.

/?k??mjut/

?

The future of transportation

word/phrase

part of speech

meaning

common collocations

example

pronunciation

space travel

noun

travel through outer space

human/commercial space travel, the future of space travel, achieve space travel, to space travel

There’s a lot of interest in space travel these days.

/?spās ?trav?l/

autonomous vehicle (also known as?driverless caror?self-driving car)

noun

a car capable of driving itself

be driven by an autonomous vehicle

I don’t believe autonomous vehicles can keep us safe.

/ɑ??tɑ?.n?.m?s?vi·?·k?l/

high-speed rail

noun

a high-speed passenger train

by high-speed rail, high-speed rail network/route/service, high-speed rail accident/crash/disaster

In the future, high-speed rail networks will take over traditional rail systems.

/?hɑ??spid?re?l/

?

Idioms related to transportation

When learning idioms related to transportation for your IELTS, keep in mind that many idioms in English include words related to transportation, but are not necessarily used to talk about transport (for example, the idiom?to throw someone under the bus?means to put the blame on another person). Here we’ll look at some idioms that you can use to talk about transportation on your IELTS test:

idiom

meaning

example

bumper to bumper

with very little space between two cars in a line of cars

The traffic’s usually bumper to bumper all the way to work.

backseat driver

a passenger in a car who gives unwanted advice to the driver

My wife’s very much a backseat driver – she always tells me to speed up or slow down.

hit the road

to begin a trip

I like to hit the road early when going on long journeys.

hitch a lift/ride

to get a free ride in someone else’s vehicle

After the festival, we hitched a lift back to the city.

beat the traffic

to leave early to avoid traveling when the roads are crowded

I always try to leave early in the morning so I can beat the traffic on my way to school.

?

Vocabulary sets related to crime

Expressing views about crime and punishment

1. The crime rate:?a measure of the number of crimes in a particular area during a period of time.

“The reduction of the?crime rate?is the main goal for lawmakers.

2. To commit a crime:?does something wrong or illegal.

“In the US, a young person who?commits a crime?by stealing a car will almost certainly go to prison.”

3. Prison sentence:?the period of time?served in prison under such as a sentence.

“It is the heated debate that government have to pass lenient laws that would avoid the?prison sentence?while others think it would increase the crime rate in our society.”

4. Deterrent:?a punishment makes somebody less likely to do illegal activities.

“The?death penalty acts as a?deterrent?to people who wish to bring drugs illegally into another country.”

5. Loss of freedom:?Be not free

“Loss of freedom is a punishment that offenders have to face when they go to jail.”

6. White-collar crime:?Crimes committed by “office works”, for example, fraud.

“More and more employees who work in a bank turn into crime as white-collar crime.”

7. Be put on probation:?To be under supervision to ensure their good behaviour

“Sometimes first-time offenders are not imprisoned but?are put on probation?for a set period of time to ensure their good behaviour.”

8 . Social isolation:?the state of separating somebody from our society.

“The offenders have to serve the prison sentence as the social isolation to remain safety of society.”

9. A violent criminal:?Includes assault, mugging and robbery.

“A student who is bullied at school may turn into?a violent criminal?when they grow up.

10. Motive for crime:?The reason why people commit crimes

” A desire for revenge on his wife is a motive for his crime as murder. “

11. Allay the fears:?to make someone feel less afraid, worried.

“I believe that some solutions could help to allay people’s fears.”

12. Turn to a career of crime:?become a criminal

“Nowadays, in the harshly competitive labour market, the unemployment rate is rising rapidly, more and more people cannot meet the basic human’s need that is maybe a reason for them to?turn to a career of crime.

13. To be imprisoned:?Go to a jail.

?Being imprisoned?is the best way to punish offenders for their guilty. “

14. To breed future offenders:?influence people, especially young people, in such a way that they later commit a?crime.

“Parents should give more attention to their offspring in order to avoid?breeding future offenders.”

15. Easy money:?Money that you get without working hard for it, especially when you do illegal activities to get this money

“To make?easy money,?the bank robbery have stolen two billion dollars from five international banks in this year.”

16. To break the law:?do something illegal

“If a person?breaks the law, he is certainly imprisoned.”

17. To resort to crime:?to use crime because there is no other solution.

“After losing all money from the game, the men?resorted to crime?to get?easy money.”

18. Illegal activities:?the illegal acts.

“It is alarming that more and more youngsters turn into illegal activities.“

19. Fall foul of the law:?to get into trouble with the police because you are doing something illegal

“In Vietnam, if the company discharges the huge amount of untreated waste into rivers, they certainly?fall?foul?of the law.

20. Juvenile delinquency:?Antisocial behaviour committed by people under eighteen years old.

“It is true that?juvenile delinquency?rate is increasing alarmingly, which could jeopardise the social stability.”

21. Soaring crime rates:?crime rates rising very fast

Example: We are facing off soaring crime rates and it’s high time the criminals were?brought to justice.

22. Miscarriages of justice:?Situation where innocent people are found guilty

Example: There have been a multitude of miscarriages of justice recently.

23. Trumped-up charges:?invented and false accusations

24. Face trial

Example: No one in the world should face trial on the basis of unreliable evidence or trumped-up charges.

25. Escape punishment

26. Custodial sentences:?a sentence to be served in a prison or similar institution

27. Commit minor offences

Example: While the rich always seem to escape punishment, poor people seem to receive custodial sentences even for committing minor offences

28. Extenuating circumstances:?circumstances that lessen the blame

29. Serve out one’s sentence:?serve the full amount of time

Courts and Trials

The trial was adjourned:?the trial was suspended till a later time or date

To be remanded in custody:?send to prison until the trial begins or continues

Dismiss the case:?Decide that the case is not worth considering

Unanimous verdict:?verdict which all the decision makers agree to

Beyond reasonable doubt

Contest the verdict:?Disagree with the verdict and tried to change it

Other useful expressions and phrases for Crime Topic:

      • Capital punishments | Death penalty
      • To sentence criminals to death
      • A form of revenge
      • A criminal record
      • To engage in unlawful activities
      • To re-offend
      • Criminals = Wrongdoers = Lawbreakers = Convicts = Offenders
      • Rehabilitated prisoners
      • Community service
      • Prison sentences
      • Unlawful actions
      • To deter/discourage people from doing something
      • Inmates
      • To send somebody to prison

?

?

Vocabulary sets related to environment

?

Damaging the?environment

?

1. Serious environmental degradation:?The process in the quality of environment changes to a worse condition.

“In some industrial zones, the production processes may result in serious environmental degradation.”

2. Irresponsible disposal of industrial waste:?Discharge industrial waste without concern about the?environment.

“Global warming stems from the irresponsible disposal of industrial waste.”

3. Waste treatment systems:?The way to treat wastes without harming the?environment.

“If factory installed waste treatment systems instead of discharging chemical wastes into rivers, water pollution could be controlled.”

4. Discharge chemical waste:?to dispose of chemical waste.

“Nowadays, more and more company and industrial zones have been discharging chemical waste into rivers, causing death to many fish and other aquatic animals.”

5. Litter the street:?To leave the?waste?paper, cans, etc. on the street.

“Residents will consider newcomers dirty and ill-mannered?if they litter the street or spit gum in public places.”

6. The emission of greenhouse gases:?The act of sending out gas, especially carbon dioxide or methane, that is through to trap heat above the Earth and cause the greenhouse effect.

“If all countries in over the world could decrease their energy consumption, this will reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.”

7. Chemical fertilisers/weedkillers:?Poison used to kill unwanted plants.

“Organic farmers do not pollute the water or the soil which result from the application of chemical fertilisers and weedkillers.”

8. Eco-friendly:?Not harmful to the environment.

“Countries such as Japan are leading the way, for example, in developing more eco-friendly cars, buses and lorries.”

9. To be spoiled by:?To be received a bad effect that it is no longer attractive, enjoyable, useful, etc

“Several famous beaches in Vietnam have been spoiled by this lack of respect for the local environment.”

10.Contamination of land, air or water:?To make land, air or water dirty or harmful by putting chemicals or poison?in it.

“Contamination of land, air and water has reached alarming levels.”

11. Illegal logging and deforestation:?the work for cutting down trees for commercial purpose in an illegal way

“It should not be forgotten that illegal logging in the Amazon Basin is still a major factor in climate change.”

12. Burning fossil fuels:?Burning a fuel such as coal or oil that is produced by the very gradual decaying of animals or plants over million of years.

” Individuals can make a small contribution by not burning wood and other fossil fuels.”

13. long-term consequences:?something that happens in the distant future as a result of a particular action or set of conditions.

“The effects of our use of fossil fuels today may last for generations, and it is almost certain to have long-term consequences for humanity.”

14. Renewable energy:?Renewable energy comes from sources that can be easily replaced naturally so that there is always more available.

“Wind farms and other sources of renewable energy will help to reduce CO2 emission to an acceptable level.”

15. Environmental protection:?The act of protecting the environment.

” Environmental protection is one of the most important challenges almost every country is facing.”

16. Sustainable development:?The development without damaging the environment.

”?The government should commit to sustainable development and the protection of the environment.”

17. To deplete natural resource:?To reduce the amount of natural resource.

” Depleting natural resource is become a serious concern for the government to get deal with.”

18. Fight climate change:?To prevent a permanent change in weather

“International cooperation is necessary to fight climate change.”

19. Conserve energy:?To protect and prevent energy from reduction.

“Scientists in many countries are cooperating to find a method to conserve energy.”

20. Sort the daily garbage:?To arrange garbage in groups according to size, type daily.

“One thing that individual can do to protect the environment is sorting the daily garbage.”

21. Dump waste:?To dispose of waste in an irresponsible manner

Example:?Disposal of household waste is a daunting task for local authorities. Towns and cities cannot just dump such waste and hope it will go away.

22. Toxic waste:?Poisonous waste

Example: Efforts to recycle waste are only a partial solution. Meanwhile, the problem of toxic waste remains.

23. Offset carbon emissions:?Pay for an equivalent amount of carbon dioxide to be saved elsewhere

Example: Some airlines have schemes now for offsetting carbon emissions.

24. Introduce green taxes:?Taxes which relate to the protection of the environment

Example: Politicians should not be afraid of introducing green taxes and incentives to encourage eco-friendly design in architecture.

25. Reduce carbon footprint:?reduce amount of carbon dioxide created by an activity/person/business

26. Food miles:?Distance food has to travel between where it is grown or made and where it is consumed

Example: We can all reduce our carbon footprint by flying less, and reduce our food miles by buying local produce.

Climate change and its consequence:

27. Searing heat:?extreme heat

Example: Parts of Europe which used to be cooler now experience intense,?searing heat, and?temperatures soar?above the average every summer

28. Widespread flooding

Example: Most areas in Europe suffer widespread flooding on a regular basis.

29. Alternative energy sources

30. Hybrid car

Example: To protect the environment, people can buy a?hybrid car, develop?alternative energy sources?for homes,?solar heating?for instance. and build more?offshore wind farms.

31. Combat climate change

Example: It is absolutely vital that every civil plays their role in combating climate change.

32. Environmental catastrophe

Example: We may have less than a decade to avoid an environmental catastrophe on a global scale.

Other useful expressions/phrases for the Environment Topic:

      • The deterioration in the air quality
      • To curb environmental deterioration
      • To destroy/degrade the environment
      • To lower the demand for energy in every household
      • Exhaust fumes from vehicles
      • To raise the public’s ecological consciousness
      • To promote environmentally-friendly technology
      • To reduce the dependence on the traditional energy resources/on fossil fuels.
      • To suffer from adverse effects of environmental problems
      • To burn fossil fuels to generate energy
      • The growing demand for fossil fuels in the world
      • Renewable energy from solar, wind or water power
      • Gas emissions from factories
      • To alleviate environmental problems
      • To contaminate the environment
      • The protection of wildlife
      • The biology will be seriously affected

?

Vocabulary sets related to government

?1.?A minority government:?that does not have enough politicians to control parliament

      • His party had gained only enough seats to form?a minority government.

2. Central government:?this is the national government of a country.

      • Funding will continue to be available from?central government?for further education for adults.

3. Government spending:?the money is spent by government

      • Government spending?on health care totals about $60 billion a year.

4. Government minister:?a politician who is in charge of a government department.

      • A?government minister?said that there would be an inquiry.

5. Domestic politics:?within a country

      • The war had a major impact on the country’s?domestic politics.

6. A government body (also a government agency):?an organization run by the government.

      • Patents are granted by U.K Patent Office,?a government body.

7. Elect a government:?vote to choose a government

      • A new?government?was?elected?last October.

8. Bring down a government:?Force it to lose power.

      • It was a major scandal that nearly?brought down the government.

9. Regulatory authority:?a regulatory authority has the official power to control an activity and make sure that it is done in a satisfactory way.

      • New drugs have been approved by the?regulatory authority.

10. Pass legislation:?officially approve it so that it become a law

      • The?legislation?was?passed?banning the use of child labour.

11. Enact legislation:?make it into a law

      • Much?legislation?has been?enacted?to control pollution.

12. Propose legislation:?suggest a new law

      • The government?proposed legislation?on data protection.

13. Political corruption:?dishonest or illegal behavior in politicians.

      • It is a country with a long history of?political corruption.

14. Make policy:?decide what it will be

      • A committee of representatives?makes policy.

15. Shape policy:?develop it or have an influence on it

      • These terrorist acts will not be allowed to?shape?our foreign?policy.

16. Pursue/ follow a policy: continue with a policy over a period.

      • The?organization?is?pursuing?a policy?of cost cutting.

17. Reverse a policy: Stop a policy and change it

      • The new government set about?reversing?previous?policies.

18. Take measures: do something in order to deal with a problem

      • The situation is now so severe that the government must?take measures?to police the Internet.

19. Long-term plan/strategy/solution:?continuing for a long period.

      • The government needs to consider?the long-term solution?of a poorly trained workforce.

20. A political strategy: a planned series of actions for politics.

      • Baldwin’s?political strategy?was almost totally successful.

?

?

Vocabulary sets related to education

Set 1: People involved in education

      1. undergraduate

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a student who is studying for their first degree at a college or university

collocations:

college/university undergraduate

first-year/second-year undergraduate

undergraduate student

example:

I was a 20-year-old undergraduate student back then.

pronunciation:

/??n·d?r?ɡr?d?·u·?t/

      1. tutor

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a teacher paid to work privately with one student or a small group

collocations:

school/college/university tutor

course tutor

personal/private tutor

example:

My parents got me a private tutor to help with my studies.

pronunciation:

/?t?u?.t?r/

      1. pupil (U.K.)

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a person, usually a child at school, who is being taught

collocations:

first-year/second-year pupil

school/primary/secondary pupil

example:

Teachers need to make sure that all pupils reach their full potential.

pronunciation:

/?pju?.p?l/

?

Set 2: Types of school/education

      1. single-sex

part of speech:

adjective

meaning:

a school for either girls or boys, but not both (antonym: mixed/coeducational school)

collocations:

single-sex school

single-sex education

example:

I went to single-sex school.

pronunciation:

/??n·d?r?ɡr?d?·u·?t/

      1. boarding school

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a school where students live and study

collocations:

go to boarding school

private/military/christian/catholic boarding school

example:

Students at boarding schools are under stricter discipline.

pronunciation:

/?b??.d?? ?sku?l/

      1. college

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a place of higher education or specialized professional or vocational training

collocations:

community/local college

attend/go to college

finish/graduate from college

to be at/in college

example:

After high school, I wanted to go to college and study graphic design.

pronunciation:

/?k?l.?d?/

?

Set 3: University/college qualifications

      1. master’s degree

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

an advanced college or university degree

collocations:

?a master’s degree in (subject)

to be awarded/to earn a master’s degree

example:

It took me over 2 years to earn my master’s degree.

pronunciation:

/?mɑ?.st?z d??ɡri?/

      1. diploma

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a document given by a college or university to show that a person has passed an exam or finished their studies

collocations:

a college/university diploma

a graduate/postgraduate/professional diploma

a diploma in (subject)

a diploma holder

get/obtain/receive/have a diploma

example:

Diploma holders have a much better chance of employment than those with no qualifications.

pronunciation:

/d??pl??.m?/

      1. postdoctoral (also informal?postdoc)

part of speech:

adjective

meaning:

advanced work or study that a person does after completing their doctoral studies (PhD)

collocations:

postdoctoral work/research/project

postdoctoral fellowship

postdoctoral student/fellow

example:

She has supervised several postdoctoral projects at the university.

pronunciation:

/?p??st?d?k.t?r.?l/

?

Set 4: University/college work

      1. research

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a detailed study of a particular subject

collocations:

carry out/conduct/do research

be based on research

academic/medical/scientific research

research findings/results

research into/on (subject)

example:

I read about a fascinating research project on songbirds and how they communicate.

pronunciation:

/?ri?.s??t?/

      1. dissertation

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

a long piece of writing on a specific subject, usually completed to receive a degree at a college or university

collocations:

undergraduate/master’s/doctoral dissertation

research dissertation

do/prepare/write a dissertation

hand in/present/submit a dissertation

a dissertation on (subject)

example:

Students can either write a dissertation or participate in a more practical project.

pronunciation:

/?d?s.??te?.??n/

      1. seminar

part of speech:

noun

meaning:

an occasion when a teacher or professor and a group of students meet for training, discussion or study on a subject

collocations:

conduct/give a seminar

attend/go to a seminar

a series of seminars

example:

I attended every single seminar when I was a university student.

pronunciation:

/?sem.?.nɑ?r/

?

?

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