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雅思阅读有什么技巧?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?剑桥雅思阅读 6 原文参考翻译 (Test3)TEST 3?

Motivating Employees under Adverse Conditions

激励员工在逆境中挑战

THE CHALLENGE

It is a great deal easier to motivate employees in a growing organisation than a declining one. When organisations are expanding and adding personnel, promotional opportunities, pay rises, and the excitement of being associated with a dynamic organisation create feelings of optimism. Management is able to use the growth to entice and encourage employees. When an organisation is shrinking, the best and most mobile workers are prone to leave voluntarily. Unfortunately, they are the ones the organisation can least afford to lose - those with the highest skills and experience. The minor employees remain because their job options are limited.

挑战

在不断增长的企业中激励员工比在衰退的企业中要容易得多。当企业扩大经营,增加员工数量时,晋升机会增加,加薪,加上有活力的企业带来的兴奋,也会产生乐观情绪。管理可以用企业的发展来吸引和激励员工。当企业陷入衰退时,流动性最强的优秀员工会主动离职。不幸的是,这些才华横溢、经验丰富的员工是公司输不起的。平庸的员工坚持留下来,因为他们可以选择的职位有限。

Morale also suffers during decline. People fear they may be the next to be made redundant. Productivity often suffers, as employees spend their time sharing rumours and providing one another with moral support rather than focusing on their jobs. For those whose jobs are secure, pay increases are rarely possible. Pay cuts, unheard of during times of growth, may even be imposed. The challenge to management is how to motivate employees under such retrenchment conditions. The ways of meeting this challenge can be broadly divided into six Key Points, which are outlined below.

在经济衰退期间,员工的士气也会下降。人们担心他们可能是下一个被解雇的人。生产率普遍下降,因为员工宁愿花时间散布谣言,为彼此提供精神支持,而不是专注于工作。对于工作稳定的人来说,加薪几乎是不可能的。在企业发展的时期,这个时候,连减薪这种闻所未闻的事情都要强制执行。在经济衰退期间,管理层面临的挑战是如何激励员工。应对这一挑战的方法大致可分为以下六个要点。

KEY POINT ONE

There is an abundance of evidence to support the motivational benefits that result from carefully matching people to jobs. For example, if the job is running a small business or an autonomous unit within a larger business, high achievers should be sought. However, if the job to be filled is a managerial post in a large bureaucratic organisation, a candidate who has a high need for power and a low need for affiliation should be selected. Accordingly, high achievers should not be put into jobs that are inconsistent with their needs. High achievers will do best when the job provides moderately challenging goals and where there is independence and feedback. However, it should be remembered that not everybody is motivated by jobs that are high in independence, variety and responsibility.

要点 1

大量的证据表明,只有做好工作,才能激发我们的工作动力。例如,小企业或大企业的自有单位经营者应该以突出的业绩来服务。然而,如果空缺职位是一个大型官僚机构的管理职位,则应选择对权力要求低、对关系要求低的候选人。因此,不可能安排与业绩突出不一致的工作。只有当一个职位能够提供具有挑战性的目标、独立性和反馈时,他们才会全力以赴。但是,我们要记住,不是每个人都有强烈的独立性、多样化的形式和对责任的高度要求的工作动机。

KEY POINT TWO

The literature on goal-setting theory suggests that managers should ensure that all employees have specific goals and receive comments on how well they are doing in those goals. For those with high achievement needs, typically a minority in any organisation, the existence of external goals is less important because high achievers are already internally motivated. The next factor to be determined is whether the goals should be assigned by a manager or collectively set in conjunction with the employees. The answer to that depends on perceptions of goal acceptance and the organisation 's culture. If resistance to goals is expected, the use of participation in goal-setting should increase acceptance. If participation is inconsistent with the culture, however, goals should be assigned. If participation and the culture are incongruous, employees are likely to perceive the participation process as manipulative and be negatively affected by it.

关键点 2

根据目标设定理论的相关文献,管理者必须确保所有员工都有明确的目标,并且在实现这一目标的过程中能够得到评价。追求卓越是所有企业中具有代表性的少数。对于他们来说,外部目标的存在并不是很重要,因为优秀的业绩有强烈的内部动机。下一个需要决定的因素是,目标是由经理指定,还是由所有员工设定。答案取决于人们的接受程度和企业文化。如果有可能对目标产生阻力,鼓励员工参与设置 S 标记将会增加接受度。然而,如果这种参与与企业文化相矛盾,则应明确目标。如果参与与企业文化不一致,员工可能会认为自己在参与的过程中受到操纵和负面影响。

KEY POINT THREE

Regardless of whether goals are achievable or well within management 's perceptions of the employee 's ability, if employees see them as unachievable they will reduce their effort. Managers must be sure, therefore, that employees feel confident that their efforts can lead to performance goals. For managers, this means that employees must have the capability of doing the job and must regard the appraisal process as valid.

重点三

目标能否实现,目标是否在管理层确定的员工能力范围内,只要员工认为自己无法实现目标, 他们不会这么努力的。因此,管理者必须确保员工相信他们的努力会实现他们的绩效目标。对于管理人员来说,这意味着员工必须有能力,并且必须承认 (绩效) 评估过程的有效性。

KEY POINT FOUR

Since employees have different needs, what acts as a reinforcement for one may not for another. Managers could use their knowledge of each employee to personalise the rewards over which they have control. Some of the more obvious rewards that managers allocate include pay, promotions, autonomy, job scope and depth, and the opportunity to participate in goal-setting and decision- making.

要点四

因为员工有不同的需求,所以对一个人有强化作用的东西可能不适用于另一个人。在其控制范围内,管理者可以根据员工的理解,对不同的员工进行奖励。管理者可以给员工的奖励包括工资、晋升、自主权、业务范围和深度,以及参与目标制定和决策的机会。

KEY POINT FIVE

Managers need to make rewards contingent on performance. To reward factors other than performance will only reinforce those other factors. Key rewards such as pay increases and promotions or advancements should be allocated for the attainment of the employee 's specific goals. Consistent with maximising the impact of rewards, managers should look for ways to increase their visibility. Eliminating the secrecy surrounding pay by openly communicating everyone 's remuneration, publicising performance bonuses and allocating annual salary increases in a lump sum rather than spreading them out over an entire year are examples of actions that will make rewards more visible and potentially more motivating.

要点五

经理需要将奖励与绩效挂钩。除了工作业绩,其他方面的奖励只会强化这些方面。在员工达到特定目标后,应该给予加薪和晋升等重大奖励。与最大的奖励效果相一致,管理者应尽量增加奖励的公开性。例如,通过公布员工工资的数量,消除薪酬的保密状态; 公布绩效奖金的金额; 一次性年薪的增加是支付的,而不是全年单独分配; 这些方法可以增加奖励的开放性和潜在激励。

KEY POINT SIX

The way rewards are distributed should be transparent so that employees perceive that rewards or outcomes are equitable and equal to the inputs given. On a simplistic level, experience, abilities, effort and other obvious inputs should explain differences in pay, responsibility and other obvious outcomes. The problem, however, is complicated by the existence of dozens of inputs and outcomes and by the fact that employee groups place different degrees of importance on them. For instance, a study comparing clerical and production workers identified nearly twenty inputs and outcomes. The clerical workers considered factors such as quality of work performed and job knowledge near the top of their list, but these were at the bottom of the production workers' list. Similarly, production workers thought that the most important inputs were intelligence and personal involvement with task accomplishment, two factors that were quite low in the importance ratings of the clerks. There were also important, though less dramatic, differences on the outcome side. For example, production workers rated advancement very highly, whereas clerical workers rated advancement in the lower third of their list. Such findings suggest that one person 's equity is another' s inequity, so an ideal should probably weigh different inputs and outcomes according to employee group.

要点六

奖励的分配必须是透明的,这样员工就会意识到奖励或结果是公平的,并且相对于特定的投资者。总之,在薪酬、职责等主要产出的差异上,应体现经验、人才、努力等主要投资者。但问题之所以复杂,不仅是因为投资和产出的形式多种多样,还因为员工群体对其关注程度不同。比如,经过对行政人员和生产工人的比较,确定了投入和产出的形式近 20 种。行政人员对工作质量和业务知识基本上是最重视的,但这对生产工人来说是最重要的。同样,生产工人认为,在智力和任务完成的过程中,最重要的投入是个人参与,而这两个因素在行政人员重要程度的排名上非常落后。在产出上有一些同样重要但不明显的差异。例如,生产工人认为晋升非常重要,但行政人员将晋升排在重要名单的最后三位。调查结果表明,一个人认为公平的事情可能对另一个人不公平。因此,理想的方法可能是为不同的员工群体权衡不同的投资和产出。


以上薛老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思阅读翻译的内容

你和雅思的故事 - Go Hard or Go Home

发表于 2019-06-04

?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 雅思考试经验总结

经常有学生问这样的问题: “你为什么每个字都懂,却听不懂你在说什么?”雅思阅读中的长难句一直是大家高分的绊脚石。如果分析不好,很可能会出现误判,题目就错了。所以大家在备考雅思的时候一定要认识到长难句翻译的重要性。翻译时要运用语法知识,认真分析句子结构,准确把握句子的意思。接下来,雅思科目频道为大家整理了一些长难句及其翻译。相信对大家都有帮助!

01.That sex ratio will be favored which maximizes the number of descendants an individual will have and hence the number of gene copies transmitted.

性别比例可以最大限度地增加个体的后代数量,从而最大限度地增加遗传给后代的基因拷贝数量。

02 \。(This is) A desire to throw over reality a light that never was might give away abruptly to the desire on the part of what we might consider a novelist-scientist to record exactly and concretely the structure and texture of a flower .

(这是一种) 照亮现实的欲望,它从来没有突然取代它背后的欲望,后者是,我们可以理解它的一部分,作为一个同时担任小说和科学家的人的愿望,准确而具体地记录一朵花的结构和艺术的意义和科学。

03 \。Hardy 's weakness derived from his apparent inability to control the comings and goings of these divergent impulses and from his unwillingness to cultivate and sustain the energetic and risky ones.

一方面,哈代的缺陷源于他明显的无能,无法控制不同创作冲动之间的穿梭; 另一方面, 他不愿意培养和保持充满活力和风险的创造性冲动。

04 \。Virginia Woolf 's provocative statement about her intentions in writing Mrs. Dalloway has regularly been ignored by the critics,since it highlights an aspect of her literary interests very different from the traditional picture of the poetic novelist concerned with examining states of reverie and vision and with following the intricate pathways of individual consciousness.

弗吉尼亚 · 伍尔芙 (Virginia Woolf) 正在创作德洛威夫人 (Mrs.) Dalloway) 关于她创作意图的这一发人深省的陈述迄今为止一直被文学评论家忽视,因为它突出了她许多文学兴趣的一个方面, 而这一方面与人们的 “诗化” 小说家 (poetic novelist) 形成的传统意见大不相同。所谓 “诗化” 小说家,关注的是考察当时幻想和梦想的各种状态,致力于追求个体意识的宁静之路。

05 \。As she put it in The Common Reader , "It is safe to say that not a single law has been framed or one stone set upon another because of anything Chaucer said or wrote ; and yet , as we read him , we are absorbing morality at every pore ."

正如她在她的书中向普通读者表达的那样,“尽管毫无疑问,没有法律规定, 也没有因为乔叟所说或所写的而建造的高层建筑; 然而,当我们阅读它的书时,我们内心的每一个毛孔都充满了道德”


以上张老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思阅读翻译的内容

发表于 2019-06-04

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?READING PASSAGE 1

_ You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. _

How Much Higher? How Much Faster?

-Limits to human sporting performance are not yet in sight

-人类运动的极限没有尽头

Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects, themselves included, through space. For the so-called power events -that require a relatively brief, explosive release of energy, like the 100-metre sprint and the long jump -times and distances have improved ten to twenty percent. In the endurance events the results have been more dramatic. At the 1908 Olympics, John Hayes of the U.S. team ran a marathon in a time of 2: 55: 18。In 1999, Morocco 's Khalid Khannouchi set a new world record of 2: 05: 42,almost thirty percent faster.

自 20 世纪初国际田径联合会开始记录运动员跑步的速度,跳跃的高度和投掷重物的距离, 跳远的距离一直在稳步上升。对于需要相对短期爆发力的所谓力型项目,如 100 米冲刺和跳远 -- 时间和距离都增加了 10% 到 20%。在耐力项目中,成绩更是惊人。1908 届奥运会美国队 John 2:55:18 的马拉松跑完了。1999年,摩洛哥的 Khalid Khannouchi 打破了 2:05:42 的新世界纪录,几乎达到了 30%。

No one theory can explain improvements in performance, but the most important factor has been genetics. 'The athlete must choose his parents carefully,' says Jesus Dapena, a sports scientist at Indiana University, invoking an oft- cited adage. Over the past century, the composition of the human gene pool has not changed appreciably, but with increasing global participation in athletics -and greater rewards to tempt athletes -it is more likely that individuals possessing the unique complement of genes for athletic perfomance can be identified early. 'Was there someone like [sprinter] Michael Johnson in the 1920 s? 'Dapena asks. ' I 'm sure that there was, but his talent was probably never realized.'

没有哪一种理论能够完全解释运动员成绩的进步,但最重要的因素是基因,“运动员在选择父母时一定要慎重”,Jesus Dapena, 印第安纳大学的一位体育科学家引用了这句话。在过去的一个世纪里,人类基因池的组成没有发生明显的变化, 但是,随着全球参与体育运动,再加上吸引运动员的更多奖励,现在更有可能尽早识别具有独特运动基因的个人。Dapena 问道: “在 1820 年代,没有像短跑运动员迈克尔 · 约翰逊这样的人?”。“我肯定有,但他的才华可能并不总是为人所知。”

Identifying genetically talented individuals is only the first step. Michael Yessis, an emeritus professor of Sports Science at California State University at Fullerton, maintains that 'genetics only determines about one third of what an athlete can do. But with the right training we can go much further with that one third than we 've been going.' Yessis believes that U.S. runners, despite their impressive achievements, are 'running on their genetics'。By applying more scientific methods, 'they' re going to go much faster '。These methods include strength training that duplicates what they are doing in their running events as well as plyometrics, a technique pioneered in the former Soviet Union.

找到有遗传天赋的人只是第一步。Michael 加州大学退休教授 Fullerton 认为,“基因只能决定运动员 1/3 的能力。但是如果训练得当,我们可以做到 1/3 以上。Yessis 人们相信,美国跑步者,不管他们有多了不起,都是 “基因赛跑” 的。通过使用更科学的手段,“他们会跑得更快”。这些包括在比赛中重复运动员动作的力量训练,以及前苏联第一次使用的强化训练技术。

Whereas most exercises are designed to build up strength or endurance, plyometrics focuses on increasing power -the rate at which an athlete can expend energy. When a sprinter runs, Yessis explains, her foot stays in contact with the ground for just under a tenth of a second, half of which is devoted to landing and the other half to pushing off. Plyometric exercises help athletes make the best use of this brief interval.

虽然大部分运动是为了增强体力和耐力,但强化训练的重点是力量 -- 运动员使用能量的速度。Yessis 解释说,当短跑运动员的脚在不到十分之一秒的时间内与地面接触时, 一半的时间花在着陆上,另一半花在着陆上。强化训练有助于运动员充分利用这个短暂的时刻。

Nutrition is another area that sports trainers have failed to address adequately. 'Many athletes are not getting the best nutrition, even through supplements, 'Yessis insists. Each activity has its own nutritional needs. Few coaches, for instance, understand how deficiencies in trace mineral can lead to injuries.

营养是运动员教练不够重视的一个方面。“许多运动员即使吃补充剂也得不到最好的营养。Yessis 坚持。每一项运动都有它需要的营养。几乎没有教练知道缺乏微量矿物质会造成什么样的伤害。

Focused training will also play a role in enabling records to be broken. 'If we applied the Russian training model to some of the outstanding runners we have in this country, 'Yessis asserts, ' they would be breaking records left and right. 'He will not predict by how much, however:' Exactly what the limits are it 's hard to say, but there will be increase even if only by hundredths of a second, as long as our training continues to improve.'

集中培训在打破记录方面也发挥着重要作用。Yessis 说: “如果我们使用俄罗斯的训练模式方法来训练该国一些最好的运动员。”。“他们会到处打破记录。然而,他不知道这种语言能打破多少记录。“很难说极限在哪里,但是只要我们的训练继续提高,它肯定会提高,即使它在一秒钟内只增加 1%。

One of the most important new methodologies is biomechanics, the study of the body in motion. A biomechanics films an athlete in action and then digitizes her performance, recording the motion of every joint and limb in three dimensions. By applying Newton 's laws to these motions, ' we can say that this athlete 's run is not fast enough; that this one is not using his arms strongly enough during take-off, 'says Dapena, who uses these methods to help high jumpers. To date, however, biomechanics has made only a small difference to athletic performance.

最重要的新方法之一是研究运动中的身体学科。生物力学将运动员的运动记录下来,然后将其表现数字化,并记录每个关节和肢体运动的三维动力学。通过在这些运动中采用牛顿定律,“我们可以说运动员跑得不够快; 运动员在投掷时手臂上没有足够的力量, Dapena 说,他用这种方式帮助跳高运动员。但是,到目前为止,在运动员的表现中只有一点作用。 Revolutionary ideas still come from the athletes themselves. For example, during the 1968 Olympics in Mexico City, a relatively unknown high jumper named Dick Fosbury won the gold by going over the bar backwards, in complete contradiction of all the received high-jumping wisdom, a move instantly dubbed the Fosbury flop. Fosbury himself did not know what he was doing. That understanding took the later analysis of biomechanics, who put their minds to comprehending something that was too complex and unorthodox ever to have been invented through their own mathematical simulations. Fosbury also required another element that lies behind many improvements in athletic performance: an innovation in athletic equipment. In Fosbury 's case, it was the cushions that jumpers land on. Traditionally, high jumpers would land in pits filled with sawdust.But by Fosbury 's time, sawdust pits had been replaced by soft foam cushions, ideal for flopping.

革命的观点仍然来自运动员本身。例如,在墨西哥举行的 1968 届奥运会上,一名相对不知名的跳高运动员 Dick Fosbury 向后跳获得金牌,这个动作与所有已知的跳高方法相反,立即被命名为 forsbay 垂直挑高 (即向后跳型)。Fosbury 我真的不知道我在做什么。经过生物力学专家的分析,了解了这一做法。他们绞尽脑汁来理解数学模拟无法创造的过于复杂、非传统的方法。Fosbury 也需要许多运动员进步背后的另一个因素: 运动员装备的创新。在 Fosbury 的例子中,这种设备是运动员着陆的垫子。在过去,这款高跳鞋会降落在一个满是木片的深坑里。但是在 Fosbury 时代,充满木片的深坑变成了柔软的泡沫垫,非常适合坠落。

In the end, most people who examination human performance are humbled by the resourcefulness of athletes and the powers of the human body. 'Once you study athletics, you learn that it 's a vexingly complex issue,' says John S.Raglin, a sports psychologist at Indiana University. 'Core performance is not a simple of mundane thing of higher, faster, longer. So many variables enter into the equation, and our understanding in many cases is fundamental. We 've got a long way to go. 'For the foreseeable future, records will be made to be broken.

最后,大多数衡量人类表现的人对运动员的潜力和人体的力量印象深刻。印第安纳大学的一位体育心理学家说: “当你研究运动员时,你会明白这是一个极其复杂的问题。” John S.Raglin 说,核心性能不是更高、更快、更远的简单、平凡的问题。在很多情况下,我们的理解是基本的。我们还有很长的路要走。在可预见的将来,这一记录将继续打破。


以上范老师为大家带来的就是关于雅思阅读翻译的内容

发表于 2019-06-04
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